Effect of Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride Gel on the Surface of Dental Nanocomposite Restorative Materials


Article Preview

The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the changes in surface roughness of different nanocomposite restoratives and enamel after application of 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel. Twelve specimens were prepared for each composite material and human enamel. The APF gel was applied to the surface of the six specimens of each experimental group for 60 sec every 24 h for 4 days. The other six specimens did not receive APF treatment (control). The surface roughness was measured using a VSI microscope. One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test were used to compare surface roughness between materials for each experimental group at a level of significance of a=0.05. There were no statistically significant differences in Ra values among the composites which did not receive APF treatment (p>0.05). After APF treatment the lowest surface roughness exhibited enamel (0.18±0.04 Ra) and the highest Dyract Extra (0.62±0.07 Ra) followed by Tetric EvoCeram (0.59±0.06 Ra) and Beautifil II (0.51±0.06 Ra). Filtek Z350 XT presented the lowest Ra values (0.23±0.03). All the experimental groups exhibited higher Ra values after APF treatment (p<0.05), except for Filtek Z350 XT (p>0.05). Application of APF gel on the specimen surfaces influenced the surface roughness of enamel and the tested dental composite restoratives depending on their composition.






D. Dionysopoulos and E. Koliniotou-Koumpia, "Effect of Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride Gel on the Surface of Dental Nanocomposite Restorative Materials", Journal of Nano Research, Vol. 51, pp. 1-12, 2018

Online since:

February 2018




* - Corresponding Author

[1] Z. Khurshid, M. Zafar, S. Qasim, S. Shahab, M. Nassem, A. AbuReqaiba, Advances in nanotechnology for restorative dentistry, Materials 8 (2015) 717-731.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ma8020717

[2] S.B. Mitra, D. Wu, B.N. Holmes, An application of nanotechnology in advanced dental materials, J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 134 (2003) 1382-1390.

[3] Ivoclar Vivadent. Tetric Evo Ceram. Scientific Documentation Schaan, Liechtenstein, (2005).

[4] 3M ESPE. Filtek Z350 XT. Technical Product Profile, FiltekTM.

[5] K. Ikemura, F.R. Tay, T. Endo, H. Pashley, A review of chemical-approach and ultramorphological studies on the development of fluoride-releasing dental adhesives comprising new pre-reacted glass ionomer (PRG) fillers, Dent. Mater. J. 27 (2008).

DOI: https://doi.org/10.4012/dmj.27.315

[6] G. Eliades, A. Kakaboura, G. Palaghias, Acid-base reaction and fluoride release profiles in visible light-cured polyacid-modified composite restoratives (compomers), Dent. Mater. 14 (1998) 57-63.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0109-5641(98)00010-4

[7] D. Dionysopoulos, E. Koliniotou-Koumpia, M. Helvatzoglou-Antoniades, N. Kotsanos, Fluoride release and recharge ability of contemporary fluoride-containing restorative materials and dental adhesives, Dent. Mater. J. 32 (2013) 296-304.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.4012/dmj.2012-144

[8] A.C. Delbem, J.A. Cury, Effect of application time of APF and NaF gels on microhardness and fluoride uptake of in vitro enamel caries, Am. J. Dent. 15 (2002) 169-172.

[9] D. Dionysopoulos, The effect of fluoride-releasing restorative materials on inhibition of secondary caries formation, Fluoride 47 (2014) 258-265.

[10] K. Soeno, H. Matsumura, K. Kawasaki, M. Atsuta, Influence of acidulated phosphate fluoride agents on surface characteristics of composite restorative materials, Am. J. Dent. 13 (2000) 297-300.

[11] M. Gharechahi, H. Moosavi, M. Forghani, Effect of surface roughness and materials composition on biofilm formation, J. Biomater. Nanobiotechnol. 3 (2012) 541.

[12] G. Cazzaniga, M. Ottobelli, A. C. Ionescu, G. Paolone, E. Gherlone, J. L. Ferracane, E. Brambilla, In vitro biofilm formation on resin-based composites after different finishing and polishing procedures, J. Dent. 67 (2017) 43-52.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2017.07.012

[13] M.M. Lobo, R.B. Goncalves, G.M. Ambrosano, L.A. Pimenta, Chemical or microbiological models of secondary caries development around different dental restorative materials, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. B Appl. Biomater. 74 (2005) 725-731.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jbm.b.30253

[14] I. Nedeljkovic, W. Teughels, J. De Munck, B. Van Meerbeek, K.L. Van Landuyt, Is secondary caries with composites a material-based problem?, Dent. Mater. 31 (2015) e247-277.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2015.09.001

[15] M.U. da Costa Soares, N.C. Aaújo, W.S. Sales, A.P. Sobrar, Impact of remineralizing agents on enamel microhardness recovery after in-office tooth whitening therapies, Acta Odontol. Scand. 71 (2013) 343-348.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3109/00016357.2012.681119

[16] D. Ozdemir-Ozened, E. Sungurtekin, H. Issever, N. Sandalli, Surface roughness of fluoride-releasing restorative materials after topical fluoride application, Eur. J. Paediatr. Dent. 14 (2013) 68-72.

[17] E.H. Sousa, S. Consani, M.F. De Goes, L.C. Sobrinho, Effect of topical fluoride application on the surface roughness of composites, Braz. Dent. J. 6 (1995) 33-39.

[18] Z.C. Cehreli, R. Yazici, F. Garcia-Godoy, Effect of 1.23 percent APF gel on fluoride-releasing restorative materials, ASDC J. Dent. Child. 67 (2000) 330-337.

[19] P. Dionysopoulos, P. Gerasimou, K. Tolidis, The effect of home-use fluoride gels on glass-ionomer, compomer and composite resin restorations, J. Oral Rehabil. 30 (2003) 683-689.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2842.2003.01104.x

[20] S.T. Yeh, H.T. Wang, H.Y. Liao, S.L. Su, C.C. Chang, H.C. Kao, B.S. Lee, The roughness, microhardness, and surface analysis of nanocomposites after application of topical fluoride gels, Dent. Mater. 27 (2011) 187-196.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2010.10.013

[21] Y. Hosoya, T. Shiraishi, R.M. Puppin-Rontani, J.M. Powers, Effects of acidulated phosphate fluoride gel application on surface roughness, gloss and colour of different type resin composites, J. Dent. 39 (2011) 700-706.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2011.08.002

[22] A.K.A. Topaloglu, D. Cogulu, N.K. Ersin, B.H. Sen, Microhardness and surface roughness of glass ionomer cements after APF and TiF4 applications, J. Clin. Pediatr. Dent. 37 (2012) 45-51.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17796/jcpd.37.1.uu24059v066508g4

[23] L. Papagiannoulis, J. Tzoutzas, G. Eliades, Effect of topical fluoride agents on the morphologic characteristics and composition of resin composite restorative materials, J. Prosthet. Dent. 77 (1997) 405-413.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-3913(97)70166-5

[24] L.H. Mair, T.A. Stolarski, R.W. Vowles, C.H. Lloyd, Wear: mechanisms, manifestations and measurement. Report of a workshop, J. Dent. 24 (1996) 141-148.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0300-5712(95)00043-7

[25] L. Mei, H.J. Busscher, H.C. van der Mei, Y. Ren, Influence of surface roughness on streptococcal adhesion forces to composite resins, Dent. Mater. 27 (2011) 770-778.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2011.03.017

[26] C.M. Bollen, P. Lambrechts, M. Quirynen, Comparison of surface roughness of oral hard materials to the threshold surface roughness for bacterial plaque retention: A review of the literature, Dent. Mater. 13 (1997) 258-269.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0109-5641(97)80038-3

[27] E. Brambilla, M.G. Cagetti, M. Gagliani, L. Fadini, F. García-Godoy, L. Strohmenger, Influence of different adhesive restorative materials on mutans streptococci colonization, Am. J. Dent., 18 (2005) 173-176.

[28] E. Brambilla, M. Gagliani, A. Ionescu, L. Fadini, F. García-Godoy, The influence of light-curing time on the bacterial colonization of resin composite surfaces, Dent. Mater., 25 (2009) 1067-1072.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2009.02.012

[29] Whitehouse, David (2012). Surfaces and their Measurement. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.

[30] International Organization for Standardization. Geometrical product specification (GPS). Surface texture: profile method: Terms, definitions and surface texture parameters. ISO 4287:1997/Cor1 (1998).

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3403/02031657u

[31] C.R. Perez, R.J. Hirata, A.H. Silva, E.M. Sampaio, M.S. Miranda, Effect of a glaze/composite sealant on the 3-D surface roughness of esthetic restorative materials, Oper. Dent., 34 (2009) 674-680.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.2341/08-014-l

[32] A.C. Ionescu, S. Hahnel, G. Cazzaniga, M. Ottobelli, R.R. Braga, M.C. Rodrigues, E. Brambilla, Streptococcus mutans adherence and biofilm formation on experimental composites containing dicalcium phosphate dihydrate nanoparticles. J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med., 28 (2017).

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10856-017-5914-7

[33] A. Leal, A. Paula, A. Ramalho, M. Esteves, M.M. Ferreira, E. Carrilho, Roughness and microhardness of composites after different bleaching techniques, J. Appl. Biomater. Funct. Mater.13 (2015) e381-e388.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5301/jabfm.5000239

[34] A.L. De Oliveira, M. Giro, P.P. Garcia, J.A. Campos, J.H. Phark, S.Jr. Duarte, Roughness and morphology of composites: influence of type of material, fluoride solution, and time, Microsc. Microanal. 20 (2014) 1365-1372.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/s1431927614012951

[35] A.U. Yap, B.Y. Mok, Effects of professionally applied topical fluorides on surface hardness of composite-based restoratives, Oper. Dent. 27 (2002) 576-581.

[36] K. Soeno, H. Matsumura, M. Atsuta, K. Kawasaki, Influence of acidulated phosphate fluoride agent and effectiveness of subsequent polishing on composite material surfaces, Oper. Dent. 27 (2002) 305-310.

[37] S.R. Jefferies, Abrasive finishing and polishing in restorative dentistry: A state of the Art Review, Dent. Clin. North Am. 51 (2007) 379-397.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cden.2006.12.002

[38] M. Jung, K. Eichelberger, J. Klimek, Surface geometry of four nanofiller and one hybrid composite after one-step and multiple-step polishing, Oper. Dent. 32 (2007) 347-355.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.2341/06-101

[39] K. Soeno, H. Matsumura, M. Atsuta, K. Kawasaki, Effect of acidulated phosphate fluoride solution on veneering particulate filler composite, Int. J. Prosthodont. 14 (2001) 127-132.

[40] D. Dionysopoulos, E. Koliniotou-Koumpia, P. Gerasimou, C. Papadopoulos, The effect of home-bleaching agents on surface roughness of restorative materials, JSM Dent. 1 (2013) 1015.

[41] K.H. Yip, D. Peng, R.J. Smales, Effects of APF gel on the physical structure of compomers and glass ionomer cements, Oper. Dent. 26 (2001) 231-238.

[42] D. Dionysopoulos, E. Koliniotou-Koumpia, P. Dionysopoulos, Surface finish produced on five aesthetic restorative materials by new polishing systems, Balk. J. Stom. 16 (2012) 27-33.