New Nanomaterials for Protecting and Consolidating Stone


Article Preview

The sol-gel process has been found to be successful in applications for the conservation and restoration of stone. However, a well-known drawback of the materials obtained by this process is their tendency to crack during drying inside the pores of the treated stone. In this article, we present an overview of our current research centred on producing crack-free sol-gel materials for consolidating and protecting building stone. A novel synthesis, in which a surfactant acts as a template to make the pore size of the gel network coarser and more uniform, is shown to provide an effective alternative for preventing the cracking of consolidants. We also highlight an alternative pathway, in which we add an organic component to the silica precursor in the presence of the surfactant. The hybrid organic-inorganic gel prepared in our laboratory provides excellent waterproofing to the stones under study.






M. J. Mosquera et al., "New Nanomaterials for Protecting and Consolidating Stone", Journal of Nano Research, Vol. 8, pp. 1-12, 2009

Online since:

September 2009




[1] G. Wheeler: Alkoxysilanes and the Consolidation of Stone. (The Getty Conservation Institute. Los Ángeles, USA, 2005).

[2] G.W. Scherer and G.E. Wheeler, in: Proceedings of 4th International Symposium on the Conservation of Monuments, edited by A. Moropoulou et al. Eds, Volume 3, p.355, Technical Chamber of Greece, Rhodes, Greece (1997).

[3] M.J. Mosquera, J. Pozo, L. Esquivias, T. Rivas and B. Silva: J. Non-Cryst. Solids 311 (2002), p.311.

[4] G.W. Scherer : J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147&148 (1992), p.363.

[5] M. J. Mosquera, J. Pozo and L. Esquivias: J. Sol-Gel Sci. & Tech 26 (2003), p.1227.

[6] M.R. Escalante, J. Valenza and G.W. Scherer, in: Proceedings of 9 th International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, edited by V. Fassina, Volume 1, p.187, Elsevier, Venice, Italy (2000).

[7] M.J. Mosquera, M. Bejarano, N. de la Rosa-Fox and L. Esquivias: Langmuir 19 (2003), p.951.

[8] M.J. Mosquera, D.M. de los Santos and A. Montes: Proceedings of the Material Research Society Symposium, Volume 852, p. OO6. 4. 1, Materials Research Society, Boston, USA (2005).

[9] C. Miliani, M.L. Velo-Simpson and G.W. Scherer: J. Cultural Heritage 8 (2007), p.1.

[10] M.J. Mosquera, D.M. de los Santos, A. Montes and L. Valdez-Castro, Langmuir 24 (2008), p.2772.

[11] P.T. Tanev and T.J. Pinnavia, Science 267 (1995). p.865.

[12] A.G.S. Prado and C. Airoldi: J. Mater. Chem. 12 (2002), p.3823.

[13] C. J Brinker and G.W. Scherer: Sol-Gel Science: The Physics and Chemistry of Sol-Gel Processing (Academic Press: New York, USA 1990).

[14] M.J. Mosquera, D.M. de los Santos, L. Valdez-Castro and L. Esquivias: J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354 (2008), p.645.

[15] E.P. Barret, L.G. Joyner and P.P. Halenda, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 73 (1951), p.373.

[16] M. Kruk and M. Jaroniec, Chem. Mater. 13 (2001), p.3169.

[17] E. Blanco, L. Esquivias, R. Litrán, M. Piñero, M. Ramírez del Solar and N. de la Rosa-Fox: Appl. Organometal. Chem. 13 (1999), p.399.


[18] J.D. Mackenzie, Y.J. Chung and Y. Hu : J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147&148 (1992), p.271.

[19] UNE-EN 1926: Métodos de ensayo para piedra natural. Determinación de la resistencia a la compresión. (AENOR Ed., 1999).

[20] M.J. Mosquera, D. Benitez and S. H. Perry: Cem. & Concr. Res. 32 (2002), p.1883.

[21] ASTM 96-90. Standard Test Methods for Water Vapor Transmission of Materials, ASTM, 685- 695. (ASTM-American Society of Testing Materials. Philadelphia1990).

[22] R.S. Berns, 2000. Billmeyer and Saltzman's principles of color technology. Wiley and Sons, Wiley-Interscience: New York, USA 2000).

[23] E.S. Goins: Alkosysilane Stone Consolidants: The effect of the Stone Substrate on the Polymerization Process (Doctoral Thesis, University College London, 1995).

[24] C.M. Whang, C.S. Yeo and Y.H. Kim: Bull. Korean Chem. Soc., 22 (2001), p.1366.

Fetching data from Crossref.
This may take some time to load.