Gettering of Cu in Silicon Wafer by Using Cavitation Impacts
A novel gettering method using cavitation impacts is presented. Gettering is very important technique for IC manufacturing. Silicon wafers used as a substrate for semiconductors are often exposed to contamination during the device processes. If crystal defects are intentionally introduced into back-side of silicon wafer, metal impurities such as Cu and Fe in the wafer are trapped in the defects and gather into the region during heat cycles. As a result, the zone near the surface of the wafer that is used as active device region is kept off unwanted impurities. This technique is called gettering. In this paper, to introduce backside damage, which is one of the gettering techniques, cavitation impacts are utilized. Cavitation bubbles produce high-pressure impacts upon collapsing. The suitable damage can be introduced by controlling the intensity of cavitation impacts. The high speed submerged water jet with cavitation, i.e., a cavitating jet, was used to cause cavitation impacts. The cavitating jet can introduce backside damage without the use of particles, as in shot blasting that is popular technique. In order to confirm the gettering effectiveness of the damage introduced by a cavitating jet, an experimental study was carried out. The silicon wafer treated by the cavitating jet was intentionally contaminated with solution of Cu(NO3)2. The wafer was then thermally treated. The surface was observed after etching that makes defects on the surface observable. On the surface of the wafer having no gettering effectiveness, defects which were induced by contamination are observed. If the wafer has gettering effectiveness, defects are not observed on the surface. Gettering effectiveness of the damage introduced by the cavitating jet was shown.
Kikuo Kishimoto, Masanori Kikuchi, Tetsuo Shoji and Masumi Saka
H. Kumano et al., "Gettering of Cu in Silicon Wafer by Using Cavitation Impacts", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 261-263, pp. 1409-1414, 2004