Surface Effect for Different Types of Materials in Nanoindentation
This paper studies surface effects on the depth-dependent hardness and proposes a novel method to estimate the apparent surface stress from nanoindentation tests. Good agreement is found between the theoretical predictions and experimental data of the depth-dependent hardness, thereby indicating that the apparent surface stress plays an important role in the depth-dependent hardness for various types of materials, such as metals, ceramics, and polymers.
Kikuo Kishimoto, Masanori Kikuchi, Tetsuo Shoji and Masumi Saka
W. H. Xu and T. Y. Zhang, "Surface Effect for Different Types of Materials in Nanoindentation", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 261-263, pp. 1587-1592, 2004