The silica colloidal crystal multilayers were deposited from ethanol suspensions with different particle concentrations by vertical deposition method. The microstructures and thicknesses of silica colloidal multilayers were characterized by scanning electron micrography. The thicknesses of colloidal crystal multilayers increased with the particle concentration increasing within a certain range of particles concentrations. When the particle concentration exceeded 2.48wt%, the thicknesses of colloidal crystal multilayers didn’t increased with the concentration increasing. Colloidal crystal multilayers with few defects could be deposited from the suspensions with the particle concentration 2.48wt%. The optical properties of the silica colloidal multilayers were investigated by a UV-Vis scanning spectrophotometer in normal incidence. They corresponded well to the microstructure obtained by SEM images.