Bioactive calcium phosphate (Ca-P) formation in bioceramics surfaces in simulated body fluid (SBF) and in rabbit muscle sites was investigated. The examined bioceamics included most commonly used bioglass®, A-W glass-ceramics and calcium phosphates in orthopedic and dental applications. The Ca-P cyrstal structures were examined with single crystal diffraction patterns in transmission electron microscopy, which reduced possibility of misidentifying Ca-P phases. The experimental results show that capability of Ca-P formation considerably varied among bioceramics, particularly in vivo. Octacalcium phosphate (OCP) was revealed on the all types of bioceramics in vitro and in vivo experiments. This work leads us to rethink how to evaluate bioactivity of bioceramics and other orthopedic materials which exhibit capability of osteoconduction by forming direct bonding with bone.