Amorphous Calcium Phosphates (ACP): Formation and Stability
Our earlier studies showed that several ions inhibit the crystal growth of apatite and promote the formation of amorphous calcium phosphates (ACP). These ions include: magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), stannous (Sn), ferrous (Fe), carbonate (CO3), pyrophosphate (P2O7). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of combination of these ions (e.g., Mg & CO3, Mg & P2O7, Mg & Zn, etc) on the formation and stability of ACP. ACP compounds containing the different ions were prepared at 25 and 37oC according to the method we previously described. Chemical stability was investigated by suspending the different ACP preparations in solutions with or without inhibitory ions. Thermal stability was determined by sintering the ACP at different temperatures. Dissolution properties were determined in acidic buffer. The ACP before and after chemical or thermal treatment were analyzed using X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetry. Results showed synergistic effects of inhibitory ions on the formation of ACP. ACP materials, regardless of their composition, remained amorphous even after heat treatment at 400oC. Transformation of ACP to other calcium phosphate phases depended on the pH and on the solution composition.
Panjian Li, Kai Zhang and Clifford W. Colwell, Jr.
R. Z. LeGeros et al., "Amorphous Calcium Phosphates (ACP): Formation and Stability", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 284-286, pp. 7-10, 2005