b-Ca3(PO4)2 (TCP) based cement combined with polyphosphate was investigated. In the bone cement composed of b-TCP, monocalcium monophosphate (MCPM) and calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH), effect of the amount of setting agent on workability, setting time, temperature rise and compressive strength was evaluated. The polyphosphate, which was selected as a growth enhancer, could be introduced without affecting the properties of cement. The polyphosphate containing cement was introduced at the calvarial defect in a rabbit. After three months, the defect was covered with newly formed bone, in contrast with the case of polyphosphate free bone cement. These results suggest that the bone cement containing inorganic polyphosphate can be used as effective bone filler with considerable potential of bone regeneration for bony defects.