Strength and Fractography of High Power Varistors
Electroceramic varistors, typically based on ZnO, show a strong non-linear currentvoltage characteristics. Actually they can be considered as electrical isolators below a critical field strength and highly conductive above. These components are used as over voltage protection elements in various fields of electric and automotive industry. In testing and in service high power varistors are loaded with µs-voltage pulses and suffer high mechanical loads due to thermal shock and inertia effects. Therefore the reliability in terms of mechanical strength becomes a crucial mark of quality. In this work the microstructure and the strength of commercial high power varistors of three different producers are presented. By a subsequent fractographic analysis fracture initiating defects are identified. It is shown, that defects in the microstructure, which result from the processing of the varistor components, play a significant role for the strength of the ceramics and of course also for the service performance of the components.
J. Dusza, R. Danzer and R. Morrell
Z. Wang et al., "Strength and Fractography of High Power Varistors", Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 290, pp. 358-365, 2005