Ultrasonic distance measurement in air is broadly used for industrial and commercial low cost applications with medium or small resolution. Configurations for the applications are usually restricted to passive reflection and A-B measurement. This paper gives a survey of the ultrasonic distance measurement method with high resolution based on pulse compression. Improvements resulting from this method include good noise suppression, possibility to operate several systems in parallel without disturbing influence of cross talk, and high measurement rate. Modified configurations and the available high resolution lead to new applications which are summarized.