Ultraprecision optical components require ultra-fine smooth surface quality of sub-nanometer or sub-angstrom in Ra. To satisfy these requirements, ultraprecision on-machine measurement system is very important, by which the profile measurement and evaluation is conducted on the machine. The form accuracy is improved by compensating machining when the form accuracy is not enough. Ultraprecision on-machine measurement systems were developed for measurement with high-accuracy and high-efficiency. It was confirmed that the on-machine measurement with AFM was possible for surface roughness or complex form for local areas. In addition, a laser probe unit with a maximum resolution of 1nm, a measuring range of 10mm, a repeatability of 5.6nm and a maximum measurable angle of 60 degrees was developed. The possibility of the non-contact on-machine form measurement was confirmed for global form accuracy control.