Effect of High Temperature on Concrete: A Literature Review


Article Preview

This paper presents a review on the effect of fire on concrete, citing 43 references. It was found that most of them are on the behavior of concrete under high temperature conditions more or less different from the standard fire condition. The problem of spalling, which high-strength concrete encounters when exposed to fire, is especially urgent to solve. Since the literature on the behavior of concrete under fire conditions is very limited, the literature even under elevated temperature has to be used as a part of the base of further research. The further research needs urgently to be carried out under the standard fire condition. Residual mechanical properties reported in most previous literature might be overestimated, where natural cooling was usually employed. Proper evaluation of fire resistance of concrete needs more experimental data obtained under various cooling regimes such as water spraying or water quenching.



Key Engineering Materials (Volumes 302-303)

Edited by:

Nai-Qian Feng and Gai-Fei Peng






G. F. Peng et al., "Effect of High Temperature on Concrete: A Literature Review", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 302-303, pp. 138-149, 2006

Online since:

January 2006




[1] F.C. Lea: The effect of temperature on some of the properties of materials, Engineering, 1920, 110, pp.293-298.

[2] F.C. Lea and R. Stradling: The resistance to fire of concrete and reinforced concrete, Engineering, 1922, 114(2959), pp.341-344, pp.380-382.

[3] P.K. Mehta: Concrete: structure, properties, and materials, Prentice-hall, Inc., New Jersey, 1986, pp.129-132.

[4] H.L. Malhotra: The effect of temperature on the compressive strength of concrete, Magazine of Concrete Research, Aug. 1956, pp.85-94.

[5] J. Dougill: The effects of thermal incompatibility and shrinkage on the strength of concrete, Magazine of Concrete Research, 1961, 13(39), pp.119-126.

DOI: 10.1680/macr.1961.13.39.119

[6] A.L.L. Baker: An analysis of deformation and failure characteristics of concrete, Magazine of Concrete Research, 1959, 11(33), pp.119-128.

DOI: 10.1680/macr.1959.11.33.119

[7] D.J. Hannant: Effects of heat on concrete strength, Engineering, Vol. 197, No. 21, 1964, p.302.

[8] D. Champbell-Alien, et al.: The influence of aggregate on behavior of concrete at elevated temperature, Nuclear Engineering and Design (Holland), Vol. 6, No. 1, 1967, pp.65-77.

[9] M. Abrams: Compressive strength of concrete at temperatures to 1600 °C, Temperature and Concrete, ACI ( American concrete institute ) SP-25, Detroit, USA, 1971, pp.33-58.

[10] D.R. Lankard, et al.: Effects of moisture content on the structural properties of Portland cement concrete exposed to temperatures up to 500 °C, Temperature and Concrete, ACI( American concrete institute) SP-25, Detroit, USA, 1971, pp.59-102.

[11] U. Schneider and R. Weiss: Considerations on the thermal destruction of cement-bound concrete and its mechanical effects, Cement and Concrete Research, 1980, 10, pp.57-164.

[12] F.S. Rostosy, R. Weiss and G. Wiedemann: Changes of pore structure of cement mortars due to temperature, Cement and Concrete Research, 1980, 10(2), pp.157-164.

DOI: 10.1016/0008-8846(80)90072-1

[13] R. Sarshar and G.A. Khoury: Material and environmental factors influencing the compressive strength of unsealed cement paste and concrete at high temperatures, Magazine of Concrete Research, 1993, 45(162), pp.51-61.

DOI: 10.1680/macr.1993.45.162.51

[14] K.D. Hertz: Heat induced explosion of dense concrete, Report No. 166, Institute of building design, Denmark, 1984, pp. l-24.

[15] G.T.G. Mohamedbhai: Effect of exposure time and rates of heating and cooling on residual strength of heated concrete, Magazine of Concrete Research, 1986, 38(136), pp.51-158.

DOI: 10.1680/macr.1986.38.136.151

[16] W. Li and Z.H. Guo: Experimental research on the strength and deformation properties on concrete under high temperature, Journal of building structure (in Chinese), 1993, 14(1), pp.8-16.

[17] G.H. Li, S.O. Zheng and Y.K. Yang: Experimental research on the properties of gravel concrete after high temperature, Concrete (in Chinese), 1993. 4. pp.16-17, p.39.

[18] A.E. Ahmed, A.H. Al-shaikh and T.I. Arafat: Residual compressive and bond strengths of limestone aggregate concrete subjected to elevated temperatures, Magazine of Concrete Research, 1992, 44(159), pp.117-125.

DOI: 10.1680/macr.1992.44.159.117

[19] U. Diederichs and U. Schneider: Bond strength at high temperatures, Magazine of Concrete Research, 1981, 33(115), pp.75-84.

DOI: 10.1680/macr.1981.33.115.75

[20] D.N. Crook and M.J. Murray: Regain of strength after firing of concrete, Magazine of Concrete Research, 1970, 22(72), pp.149-154.

DOI: 10.1680/macr.1970.22.72.149

[21] H. Tanaka et al: Properties and re-hydration of hardened cement paste after being heated, Cement and Concrete (in Japanese), 1983, 434, pp.34-40.

[22] M.A. Riley: Possible new method for the assessment of fire-damaged concrete, Magazine of Concrete Research, 1991, 43(155), pp.87-92.

DOI: 10.1680/macr.1991.43.155.87

[23] J.J. Jensen, E.A. Hansen, U. Danielsen and S. Seglem: Offshore concrete structures exposed to hydrocarbon fire, Proceedings of First International Conference on Concrete for Hazard Protection, Edinburgh, UK, 1987, pp.113-125.

[24] P.J. Robins and S.A. Austin: The resistance of steel fibre concrete to VTOL engine jet blast, Cement and Concrete Composite, 16(1996), pp.57-64.

DOI: 10.1016/0958-9465(94)90031-0

[25] S. Chandra and L. Baerntsson: Some effects of polymer addition on the fire resistance of concrete, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 10, 1980, pp.367-375.

DOI: 10.1016/0008-8846(80)90112-x

[26] S.T. Shirley, R.G. Burg and A.E. Fiorato: Fire endurance of high-strength concrete slabs, ACI Materials Journal, 1988, Mar-Apr, pp.102-108.

[27] C. Castillo and A.J. Durrani: Effect of transient high temperature on high-strength concrete, ACI Materials Journal, 1990, Jan-Feb, pp.47-53.

[28] G. Sanjayan and L.J. Stocks: Spalling of high-strength silica fume concrete in fire, ACI Materials Journal, 1993, Mar-Apr, pp.170-173.

DOI: 10.14359/4015

[29] Y. Malier (ed): High Performance Concrete: from materials to structure (E & FN SPON Press, London, 1992).

[30] P. -C. Aitcin: High performance concrete (E & FN SPON Press, London, 1998).

[31] N.Q. Feng: High Performance Concrete (China Construction Industry Press, Beijing, 1996).

[32] L.T. Phan: Fire Performance of High-Strength Concrete: A Report of the State-of-the-Art, NISTIR 5934, Building and Fire Research Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaitherburg, Maryland, (1996).

DOI: 10.6028/nist.ir.5934

[33] W. -M. Lin, T.D. Lin, and L.J. Powers-Couche: Microstructures of fire-damaged concrete, ACI Materials Journal, 92 (1996), pp.199-205.

[34] L. Kristensen and T.C. Hansen: Cracks in concrete core due to fire or thermal heating shock, ACI Materials Journal, 91 (1994), pp.453-459.

DOI: 10.14359/4063

[35] K.M. Nemati, P.J.M. Monteiro and N.G. W Cook: A new method for studying stress-induced microcracks in concrete, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering. 10 (1998), pp.128-134.

DOI: 10.1061/(asce)0899-1561(1998)10:3(128)

[36] Y. N. S. Chan, G. F. Peng and M. Anson: Fire behavior of high performance concrete made with silica fume at different moisture contents, ACI Materials Journal, 95 (1999), pp.405-409.

DOI: 10.14359/640

[37] G. F. Peng, S.Y. N. Chan, J. H. Yan, Y. F. Liu and Q. X. Yi: Journal of Materials Science and Technology, Vol. 21 (2005), pp.118-122.

[38] G. F. Peng, Y. F. Liu, S. H. Bian, Q. X. Yi, and J. Zhao: Explosive spalling and residual mechanical properties of fiber-toughened high-performance concrete subjected to high temperatures, submitted to Cement and Concrete Research (2005).

DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2005.12.014

[39] Y.N. Chan, G. F. Peng and M. Anson: Cement and Concrete Composites, Vol. 23 (1999), pp.23-27.

[40] X. Luo, W. Sun and S.Y.N. Chan: Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 30 (2000), pp.379-383.

[41] S. Ishihara, T. Gshima and K. Nomura: Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 34 (1999), pp.629-636.

[42] A.Y. Nassif: Fire and Materials, Vol. 26 (2002), pp.103-109.

[43] G. F. Peng, S. H. Bian, Z. L. Zhao and Q. X. YI: Key Engineering Materials (the same issue as this paper, 2005).

In order to see related information, you need to Login.