Introduction: Osteogenesis occurs in porous hydroxyapatite (HA) when HA blocks combined with marrow mesenchymal cells are grafted in vivo. In vitro bone formation occurs in HA pores when HA combined with marrow cells is cultured in osteogenic medium containing dexamethasone. Cultured bone/HA constructs possess higher osteogenic ability when they are grafted in vivo. Marrow mesenchymal cells (MSCs) contain many stem cells which can generate many tissue types. In the present study, we investigated osteogenic potential of cultured bone/HA combined with MSCs. Materials and Methods: Marrow cells were obtained from the femoral bone shaft of male Fischer 344 rats (7 weeks old), and were cultured in T-75 flasks. Primary cultured cells were trypsinized and combined with porous HA (5x5x5 mm, Interpore 500). The composites were subcultured in osteogenic medium containing dexamethasone. One tenth of primary cells were transferred into new T-75 flasks containing standard medium. After 2 weeks, MSCs were trypsinized, combined with cultured-bone/HA constructs, and prepared for implantation. MSC/cultured-bone/HA constructs, cultured bone/HA constructs, and HA alone were subcutaneously implanted into syngeneic rats. These implants were harvested at 2 or 4 weeks post-implantation, and prepared for histological and biochemical analyses. Results: Alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin content of MSC /cultured bone/HA constructs were much higher than those of cultured bone/HA constructs at 2 and 4 weeks post-implantation. Histological examination supported these findings. Discussion and Conclusion: MSCs show high ability of cell proliferation. In addition, MSCs can generate new blood vessels which would support regeneration of bone tissue. Here, we suggested that MSCs could promote osteogenesis. We also showed that excellent engineered bone tissue could be fabricated by combining MSCs and cultured bone derived from dexamethasone-treated MSC culture.