Good interfacial interaction is crucial for preparation of inorganic-organic materials at a nanometer level. Poly(α-methacrylic acid) (PMAA) was grafted on the PLA surfaces via photooxidization and subsequent UV induced polymerization in an attempt to synthesize nano-hydroxyapatite/poly(lactide) (n-HA/PLA) composites. Grafting of PMAA on the PLA surface was confirmed using FTIR analysis and the size distribution measurement of the grafted-PLA (g-PLA) particles. n-HA/g-PLA composites were in situ synthesized via dropwise addition of Ca2+- and g-PLA containing solution to PO4 3-- solution. The prepared composites were characterized by FTIR, XRD，SEM and TEM means. Analytical results indicated that the g-PLA acts as a template to manipulate the nucleation and growth of n-HA crystals and thereby to control the morphology, size and anisotropy of n-HA crystals and their distribution over the organic phase. Chemical linkages and/or interfacial interactions between the n-HA and the g-PLA in the n-HA/g-PLA composite were further discussed.