In Vitro Bioactivity of Injectable Ceramic Orthopaedic Cements
The objective of this paper is to investigate and compare the in vitro bioactivity of three injectable cements for orthopaedic applications. The cements were all based on chemically bonded ceramics technology; calcium phosphate (Norian SRS), and experimental versions of calcium silicate and calcium aluminate cements. The cements were mixed with their respective liquids and were after setting stored in phosphate buffered saline at 37 °C for time periods of 1h, 24 h, 7 days and 30 days. After storage the samples were analysed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thin film X-Ray diffraction (TF-XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) for the presence of possible apatite on the sample surface. The SEM and EDX analyses showed that surface films containing Ca and P (along with the other atoms present in the materials) were formed on all materials. Thus reactions with the storage medium had occurred. The TF-XRD analysis confirmed the presence of apatite for the calcium phosphate cement and the calcium aluminate cement. On the calcium silicate cement most of the surface zone seemed to be amorphous with only broad peaks corresponding to apatite. Thus all the tested materials showed signs of in vitro bioactivity.
Takashi Nakamura, Kimihiro Yamashita and Masashi Neo
A. Faris et al., "In Vitro Bioactivity of Injectable Ceramic Orthopaedic Cements", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 309-311, pp. 833-836, 2006