The objective of this study was to evaluate cell adhesion and proliferation on the hydroxyapatite (HAp)-coated silk fibroin (SF) fabric. Nano-scaled sintered HAp particles were covalently coated on SF chemically modified by graft polymerization. After the fabrication of the HAp/SF composite, mesenchymal cells (MCs) derived from EGFP-expressing transgenic rat bone marrow were seeded on the composite and cultured for 10 days. Fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the cells adhered and actively proliferated on the composites comparable to those on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) dishes. The results suggest that the composites are suitable for mesenchymal cell culture scaffolds and useful materials for regenerative medicine.