Development of Lead-Free Piezoelectric Materials Using Domain Wall Engineering
For the  oriented barium titanate (BaTiO3) single crystals, the patterning electrode was applied to induce the finer engineered domain configurations with domain size of 3 2m. The poling treatment was performed at 134 °C under electric fields below 6 kV/cm to inhibit the burning of the patterning electrode with photoresist. As the results, the gradient domain sizes from 3 to 8-9 2m were induced into the 31 resonator. The d31 was measured at -243.2 pC/N, and this value was almost 70 % of the expected d31 of –337.7 pC/N for the resonator with domain size of 3 2m. This difference was originated from lower applied electric field below 6 kV/cm. However, this study was revealed that the patterning electrode was very powerful tool to induce much finer domain sizes below 5 2m.
Keiichi Katayama, Kazumi Kato, Tadashi Takenaka, Masasuke Takata and Kazuo Shinozaki
S. Wada et al., "Development of Lead-Free Piezoelectric Materials Using Domain Wall Engineering", Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 320, pp. 151-154, 2006