Simulation Assisted Measurement of Nanoparticle Concentration Generated during High-Density Plasma CVD of Poly-Silicon Films
To study nanoparticles generated within the high-density plasma system, it is necessary to know the particle concentration (#/cm3), which is typically measured using laser light scattering of particles trapped inside the plasma. This technique has limitations because particles are localized due to the forces that act on the trapped particles inside the plasma and the localization point varies as the particles grow. Unless spatially averaged particle concentrations are obtained by scanning through the plasma, laser light scattering measurements of particle concentration might represent only the local variation of particle concentration. In this paper, novel method is presented to measure the particle concentration employing TEM measurement results and the simulation of particle transport for calculation of transport efficiency from the plasma region where the particles are generated to the TEM grid. As the particles were collected on the TEM grid after the plasma was extinguished, the simulation includes the effects of Brownian diffusion, aerodynamic drag and gravitational sedimentation but not electrostatic or ion drag force. Simulation results were obtained for particles ranging from 5 to 100 nm. For each particle size, transport efficiencies from 56 different starting positions were evaluated. It was found that transport efficiencies of particles in the 20 to 50 nm diameter range were highest, since these particles tend to follow the gas flow. Sampling efficiencies of particles smaller than this decreased due to Brownian diffusion. For larger particles, sampling efficiencies also decreased, due to gravitational sedimentation. The measured particle concentrations were found to be ~108 #/cm3 and roughly constant over time.
Soon-Bok Lee and Yun-Jae Kim
T. Kim et al., "Simulation Assisted Measurement of Nanoparticle Concentration Generated during High-Density Plasma CVD of Poly-Silicon Films", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 326-328, pp. 349-352, 2006