Electro-Chemical Mechanical Deposition for Planarization of Cu Interconnect
As copper technology moves from pilot to volume manufacturing, semiconductor fabrication is focused on methods to improve device yield. In especially semiconductor manufacturing, electrochemically deposited copper is the material of choice for advanced interconnect applications. Electrochemical deposition (ECD) employs copper plating electrolytes with organic additives to achieve bottom-up filling of small vias and trench with high aspect-ratios. However, for features with small aspect-ratios, the ECD process yields conformal layers because the additives and the bottom-up fill mechanism are not operative in such large features. So, ECD process does not achieve within-die and within-wafer planarity of the deposited copper layer. For planarization of large features and obtaining globally and locally flat films, an electro-chemical mechanical deposition (ECMD) method has been employed. ECMD process is a novel technique that has ability to deposit planar conductive films on non-planar substrate surfaces. Technique involves simultaneous ECD roles and mechanical sweeping of the substrate surface. Copper layer deposited by the ECMD process grows preferentially in cavities on the wafer surface yielding flat profiles and much reduced overburden thickness. Preferential deposition into the cavities on the substrates surface may be achieved through two different mechanisms. The first mechanism is more mechanical in nature and it involves material removal from the top surface. The second mechanism is more chemical in nature and it involves enhancing deposition into the cavities where mechanical sweeping does not reach, and reducing deposition onto surfaces that are swept. Planar layers obtained by the ECMD technique are suitable for low stress material removal processes. Planar layers also yield improved parametric results in device structures after the material removal step. In this study, we demonstrate mechanical role of pad gives effects in ECMD process. So we evaluate gap-filling and planarization between ECMD and ECD.
Soon-Bok Lee and Yun-Jae Kim
S. H. Jeong et al., "Electro-Chemical Mechanical Deposition for Planarization of Cu Interconnect", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 326-328, pp. 389-392, 2006