Development of a Virtual Model and Experimental Simulator for the Human Cervical Spine
In this study, we introduced a virtual model and experimental simulator applicable to kinematics and kinetics analyses of the human cervical spine. The geometry of cervical vertebrae was created from computer tomography images. The disc joints were modeled as load-based joints having non-linear viscoelastic properties defined by data from in vitro experiments. The facet joints were modeled to rotate freely and translate along facet planes. Ligaments were modeled as nonlinear spring-damper elements. Simulated testing of the virtual model was conducted and the global stiffness response passed all of the statistical comparison tests. The model provided realistic visualization of in vitro experimental protocol.
Soon-Bok Lee and Yun-Jae Kim
H. S. Ahn and D. DiAngelo, "Development of a Virtual Model and Experimental Simulator for the Human Cervical Spine", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 326-328, pp. 769-772, 2006