In this study, we proposed ER fluid-aided polisher (ERAP) using one-sided, patterned electrodes. The characteristics of ER fluid and ER fluid containing abrasive grit were investigated. The polishing performances of ER fluid containing abrasive grit were verified using an ERAP. The following conclusions were obtained. Thick clusters formed between both electrodes with increased voltage. Abrasive grit was condensed on the thick clusters of ER fluid-particles that formed around the electrodes with further increases in voltage. The ER effect is a hardening of ER fluid under loading by an electric field. The ER effect of ER fluid containing abrasive grit decreased because the grit clusters bound weakly to each other. The ER effect decreased with a decrease of grit size. The surface roughness showed little change when a Shower curtain (a nylon cloth) was used for a pad. An electric field was generated around the cutting zone when a Toraysee (a washable lens cloth) was used as a pad. This leads to large efficiency and high precision in polishing. The surface roughness decreased with increased voltage up to 1.0kV/mm, because the abrasive grit was tightly fixed by the ER effect. A minimum surface roughness was attained at approximately 1.0 kV/mm when using WA and SD grits. The surface roughness increased due to a hardening of the ER fluid, causing deep scratching of the workpiece at 2.0kV/mm.