The grain cutting trace of elliptical spiral in workpiece two-dimensional ultrasonic vibration grinding(WTDUVG) is defined, the reason of machining accuracy improvement by applying two-dimensional ultrasonic vibration is discussed. Adopting two-dimensional ultrasonic composite processing, the influences of grinding depth, worktable velocity, wheel granularity on the surface roughness of Al2O3/ZrO2 ceramic nanocomposites were described. Experimental results of AFM microstructure show that the material removal model in WTDUVG is dominated by ductile flow of material, some crystal refinement, the crush powder and grain pull-out are visible and there is almost no fracture. Furthermore, the surface roughness in WTDUVG with coarse grit is about 30 40% less than that in CG under identical grinding condition; the qualitative analysis of X-diffraction results indicated that the surface phases are composed of α-Al2O3, t-ZrO2 and small quality m-ZrO2, there are amorphous phase in the surface both with and without vibration grinding. M-zirconia phase transitions rule in vibration and conventional grinding was found. Under definitive grinding conditions, the material removal mechanism of inelastic deformation is the principal removal mechanism of Al2O3/ZrO2 ceramic nanocomposites, the grit size of diamond wheel and vibration grinding mode have important influence on material removal mechanism of ceramic nanocomposites.