Advances in Abrasive Technology IX

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Authors: L.Q. Du, Y. Lv, Wei Jie Dong, X.G. Gao
Abstract: Piezoelectric bimorph fabricated by hydrothermal method is presented in the paper. This method is low cost, simple and easy. In order to describe the characteristics of piezoelectric bimorph, properties of PZT film are studied by XRD and SEM. The ratio of PbTiO3/PbZrO3 in PZT is 53/47, which is around morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). PZT film is composed of cubic particles with the average size of 5μm. Density is figured out through the datum measured in experiments. The model used to analyze the driving ability of bimorph is set up; piezoelectric coefficient d31 of PZT film is worked out using this model. Finally, the ferroelectric property of the bimorph is investigated and coercive voltage of the bimorph Vc =1.67V is obtained.
Authors: Koichi Okuda, Y. Sugie, Masayuki Nunobiki
Abstract: This study deals with behaviour of bending deformation in CO2 laser forming process of titanium. CO2 laser forming technique was applied for a pure titanium plate with thickness of 1 mm to aim the development of new bending process. The experiments of laser forming were carried out with a CO2 laser machine. The bending angle and the temperature of workpiece were examined under the condition of various laser power, feed speed and laser spot diameter. Based on the experimental results, it was found that the bending deformation behaved greatly depending on the laser power and the laser spot diameter. The bending angle increased with an increase in the laser power. The bending direction tended to change from the laser irradiation side to its opposite side when the large laser spot diameter was applied.
Authors: Sadao Sano, Kiyoshi Suzuki, Wei Li Pan, Manabu Iwai, Yoshihiko Murakami, Tetsutaro Uematsu
Abstract: Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) exhibits a thermal conductivity similar to that of the electrically conductive chemical vapor deposition diamond (EC-CVD diamond) found to function as zero-wear electrodes at short pulse duration. In this study, PCD was used as electrodes applied to EDM on tungsten carbide. Two kinds of PCD (CTB-010 and CTH-025) with a flat surface were used. The wear of the PCD electrodes was about 1.5% for very short pulse duration such as te=1μs, but it was zero wear at te=30μs, though the wear of a Cu-W electrode was 10% even on the machine recommended conditions for the low wear. EDM experiment using a V-shaped PCD electrode with an included angle of 45° was also carried out and the performance was compared with the case using a V-shaped Cu-W electrode. Under the conditions of a no load voltage of 60V, a set peak current of 2A, and a medium pulse duration of te=15μs, there was no wear on PCD electrodes when observed under the SEM, whereas a 50μm-deep wear on the Cu-W electrodes even under the machine recommended condition for the low wear was observed.
Authors: Jian Zhong Zhou, Hui Xia Liu, Chao Jun Yang, Xiang Guang Cao, Jian Jun Du, M.X. Ni
Abstract: Traditional forming process of sheet metal is realized with Die and Mould, this technique lacks flexibility and used in the Volume production. The forming process of sheet metal based on laser shock waves is a novel and developing technique. Laser shock forming (LSF) and Laser peen forming (LPF) are two different forming process of sheet metal, both of them are based on a mechanical effect of shock waves induced by laser. In this paper, after introducing the mechanism of laser shock wave generating, these two forming process and technique feature are analyzed and compared, some research progresses are presented. It is indicated that forming technique based on laser shock waves are of high-flexible and great potential application in the fields of plastic forming of sheet metal.
Authors: Yung Kang Shen, H.J. Chang, L.H. Hung
Abstract: This paper presents the application of microstructure replication of lightguiding plate for micro injection compression molding (MICM). The lightguiding plate is applied on LCD of two inch of digital camera. Its radius of micro-structure is from 100μm to 300μm by linearity expansion. The material of lightguiding plate is PMMA. This paper discusses the replication properties for different process parameters by single-parameter method for micro injection compression molding. The important process parameters of replication properties are the mold temperature, compression distance and melt temperature in micro injection compression molding. The mold temperature is the most significant factor of replication properties of microstructure of lightguiding plate for micro injection compression molding.
Authors: Hon Jong Choi, E.G. Kang, W.P. Hong, Seok Woo Lee, Young Jae Choi
Abstract: FIB equipment has the ability to perform etching and chemical vapor deposition simultaneously. It is very advantageously used to fabricate micro structure components having 3D shape because it has a minimum beam size of Φ 10nm and smaller. Currently, FIB technology has been studied the research fields relating to two problems such as low accuracy and low productivity due to redeposition and a charging effect. This paper focuses on applying FIB technology to the field of micro mold fabrication and repair. As such, the simple micro pattern fabrication techniques and the experimental characteristics are studied on FIB-CVD according to ion beam condition and scanning area. We have encountered some remarks that the result of the experiments according to beam current of 8 pA, shows superior CVD yield. But the result of 1318 pA shows the pattern etched off. Furthermore, we also analyzed the scanning area effect for FIB-CVD yield and suggest the maximum yield condition of the chemical vapor deposition for micro part fabrication.
Authors: Yoshihiko Murakami, Takahiro Yamamoto
Abstract: Ecological deep hole drilling is proposed in this paper. The ecological drilling means a cutting without coolant or minimum quantity lubrication (MQL). Under a cutting condition with a small amount of lubrication, the drills should be designed availably to control heat generation during cutting. An attempt is made on the development of innovative drills which are available for use under ecological cutting conditions. These drills were coated especially with a titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN) film and a poly crystalline diamond layer. After TiAlN coating flutes of drills were lapped with diamond compounds [1]. The result of studies on the process and application of the innovative drills was reported.
Authors: Wei Zhao, Ning He, Liang Li
Abstract: Minimal quantity lubrication (MQL) machining has been accepted as a successful semi-dry application because of its environmentally friendly characteristics and satisfactory performance in practical machining operations. However, seldom investigation has been done in MQL machining of titanium alloy at high cutting speeds. In this paper, high speed milling experiments with MQL9 ml/h of oil in a flow of compressed air have been carried out for a widely used titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. Uncoated cemented carbide inserts have been applied in the experiments. Within the range of cutting speeds employed (190 m/min~300 m/min), the cutting performance of MQL has been investigated when peripheral milling the titanium alloy Ti6Al4V in terms of cutting forces, surface roughness, tool life and wear mechanism. The results show that, compared to dry machining, MQL machining brings about a significant reduction in cutting forces and surface roughness, and it also gives rise to a notably prolonged tool life.
Authors: Zhen Jia Li, Yao Nan Cheng, Y.B. Wang, Y.G. Zhao
Abstract: Based on the milling temperature experiments and researches, we established the milling temperature mathematical model using dimension analytic method,and the heat density function and superficial heat density function of the flat milling insert and the waved-edge milling insert, whose rake face is wave curve plane and created by the authors using the diathermanous theory. We describe the mathematic model of the instantaneous temperature field by the theory of the finite moving planar sources of heat. At last, a program was done to calculate the heat density function and the milling temperature field. According to the calculated results and plotted graph, it is proven that the highest temperature is not on the knifepoint and host edge, in fact, it is offset from the host edge a certain space. So we can make the conclusion that the waved-edge milling insert’s cutting capability is higher than the flat milling insert’s which is consistent with the experimental result. All the studies above are the foundation for accurately describing the 3-D temperature field and optimizing groove.
Authors: Sheng Fang Zhang, Zhi Hua Sha, Ren Ke Kang
Abstract: During the Machining process of a part, along with the generation of new surfaces, various machining errors are produced. These machining errors depend on the characteristic of the manufacturing process system, as there are so many undetermined factors in the process system, it is very difficult to determine the machining accuracy of the workpiece. To the operator, the final accuracy of the part is very ambiguous, he can only consider the shape of the workpiece, and machining accuracy always be controlled by selecting different sets of cutting parameters. So the machining process is always time-consuming and costly. Therefore, it is very necessary to establish the accuracy predicting model to the workpiece. In this paper, According to the characteristic of turning, tool nose is abstracted into a “tangential point”, “three instantaneous centers” method is presented to get the reality shape of the workpiece. Using this method, and with the demarcating the errors in process system, the workpiece shaping model including multi-error is established. The model can not only describe the physical state of the workpiece, but also calculate the machining accuracy of the workpiece conveniently. In this paper, ‘three instantaneous centers’ method is developed to get a workpiece reality shape in turning. Using this method, the workpiece shaping model including multi-error is established. The model can not only describe the physical state of the work-piece, but also calculate the machining precision of the work-piece online.

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