The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of repairing massive bone defect with in vivo tissue engineering(TE) bone, and to provide experimental evidence for the application of in vivo TE bone into clinic in the future. Six calcium phosphate ceramics (Ca-P ceramics) columns were prepared, and then immersed in dynamic revised simulated body fluid (RSBF). 72 hours later, the bone-like apatite was formed on the surface and pore walls of ceramics. Three dogs were used in this study. Two ceramic columns were implanted bilaterally in the femoral muscles of each dog to construct living bone graft of in vivo TE bone. 6 weeks after implantation, they were transplanted to the box-like bone defects sites created in bilateral mandible of the same animals. The dogs were sacrificed at 8, 12 week after operation respectively. Samples were harvested for gross observation, X-ray examination, tetracycline fluorescence labeling, SPECT and histological observation. These results demonstrated that as a living bone graft, in vivo TE bone participated in the bone metabolism of host, and integrated with the host bone. It is feasible to reconstruct box-like bone defect of mandible with the in vivo TE bone.