To evaluate the effectiveness of the cell-material in situ on joint resurfacing, a woven fabric polyglycolic acid (PGA) treated with fresh chondrocytes was used for repairing cartilage defects. Full-thickness defects were created in the weight-bearing surfaces of the femoral intercondylar fossa in a rabbit model. The defect was filled with and without PGA under surgical condition. Before implantation, chondrocytes were co-cultured with PGA for one day. The animals were sacrificed at eight weeks after implantation and evaluated grossly and histological score. Morphological examination showed that for PGA/chondrocytes group, the repaired tissue appeared similar in color and texture to the surrounding articular surface. While for the untreated control, no cartilage-like tissue was observed at all defects, but connective fibrous tissue. Histological analysis revealed neochondrogenesis and clusters of cartilage matrix with specific safranin-O staining for the PGA/cell group. The Gross and histological evaluation indicated a significantly higher score for PGA/cell group than for PGA and control group. These results suggest that the woven fabric PGA may facilitate the formation of cartilage tissues by providing a biodegradable and good-handle vehicle for the delivery to and retention of organized cell matrix constructs in vivo site. It might therefore enhance neochondrogenesis because of the superior biodegradable and biocompatible of PGA scaffold sheet, while the more suitable biological environment might sustain cell growth and in situ cell function, suggesting a promising candidate for functional tissue engineering of clinical environment.