We observed the cytotoxicity of human bone marrow stromal cells(hBMSCs) by microparticles of bioactive glass with four particle groups(same chemical composition-45S5 but produced by two different manufacturer and two different size groups). In vivo test using rat calvaria were also carried out. The apoptosis rates of all small particle groups(10-20 ㎛) were increased than large(500-700 ㎛ or 200-900 ㎛) particle groups in any culture time and any amount of particles with statistical significance. In vivo study we observed pathologic signs such as macrophages and foreign-body giant cells in rat calvaria by micro-particles of bioglass. Small(10- 20 ㎛) sized particles induced foreign body reaction and bone resorption. There was proliferation of macrophages and cells in large number. But in large particle groups, only fibroblasts were surrounding the particles. The micro-particles of bioglass induced apoptosis of hBMSC and foreign body reaction in calvaria of rat, therefore micro-particles of bioglass may cause osteolysis if used in replacement arthroplasty.