A big variety of bioceramics have been successfully utilized as implant materials for promoting fixation of bony tissues. Different bioceramics exhibited markedly different proliferation rates of the osteoblast cells in vitro. Clarification of the mechanism about the attachment and proliferation/differentiation of the cells would contribute to selecting suitable biomaterials for hard tissue replacement. Proteomics study was performed in this study employing the 2-dimensional electrophoresis assay with an aim of recognizing the changes in proteins. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings have been fabricated and they have shown promising mechanical performances. Results showed that the nanostructured HA coatings promoted proliferation of the osteoblast cells. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay revealed an increased ALP activity of the proliferated viable cells, and obviously the presence of the nanosized pores can enhance the anchoring and stretching of the cells. No obvious difference in the 2-D gel maps taken for the cells proliferated on the HA coating and for control can be found. This in turn suggests that the nanostructured HA coating induces minor changes in proteins of the cells.