Histoacryl® (N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate) has been widely utilized as a tissue adhesive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical and adhesive properties of newly developed cyanoacrylate-based β-TCP composite systems. The β-TCP powder was modified on the surface with citric acid to make this material mixed with cyanoacrylate easily. The setting time of acidtreated β-TCP/ Histoacryl® systems was dramatically prolonged and the polymerization heat was significantly decreased compared to that of untreated β-TCP/Histoacryl® system. The shear bond strength of cyanoacrylate-based β-TCP composites decreased with addition of acid-treated β-TCP filler. The compressive strength of β-TCP/Histoacryl® composites increased strongly with increasing the amount of acid-treated β-TCP filler. The cytotoxicity of the β-TCP/Histoacryl® composites decreased with the increasing of the amount of added β-TCP. These results indicated that our novel β-TCP/Histoacryl® composites had the great potential to serve as adhesives or filling materials in the dental field.