A Bioglass® reinforced polyethylene (Bioglass®/polyethylene) composite has been prepared, which combines the high bioactivity of Bioglass® and the toughness of polyethylene. The spatial distribution of Bioglass® particles within the composite is important for the performance of composites in-vivo. Recent developments in X-ray microtomography (XμT) have made it possible to visualize internal and microstructural details with different X-ray absorbencies, nondestructively, and to acquire 3D information at high spatial resolution. In this study, the volume fraction and 3D spatial distribution of Bioglass® particles has been acquired quantitatively by XμT. The information obtained provides a foundation for understanding the mechanical and bioactive properties of the Bioglass®/polyethylene composites.