Carbonate Substitution and Preferred Growth Orientation of Biomimetic Apatites
Simulated body fluid (SBF) solutions are widely used for in vitro bioactivity tests and to coat bioinert materials with biomimetic calcium phosphates. In this study SBF solutions with varying HCO3 - content were used to precipitate hydroxy carbonated apatite (HCA) on a bioactive titanium surface. XRD as well as cross-sectional TEM analyses revealed that the biomimetically derived crystallites show a preferred growth orientation in direction of their c-axis and perpendicular to the surface of the substrate. FTIR and Raman analyses revealed that, as long as the HCO3 - concentration in the testing solutions is below 20 mmol/l, only B-type HCA precipitates. Using SBF with a HCO3 - concentration equal to human blood plasma (27 mmol/l) leads to a AB-type substitution where, in accordance with bone mineral, CO3 2- substitutes PO4 3- as well as OH-.
Xingdong Zhang, Xudong Li, Hongsong Fan, Xuanyong Liu
F. A. Müller et al., "Carbonate Substitution and Preferred Growth Orientation of Biomimetic Apatites", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 330-332, pp. 725-728, 2007