In this paper, microspheres were prepared by using Chinese bauxite as raw materials through centrifugal spray drying method. The microstructure and composition of ceramic microsphere were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and X-ray energy spectrum. The particle size was 10~100#m. The XRD analysis reveals that the main crystalline phase of the ceramic microsphere were α-Al2O3 and mullite (3Al2O3•2SiO2). The Al2O3 content (chemical composition) of the microspheres was little more than 70%, and the molar ratio of Al2O3/SiO2 was near to the molar ratio of alumina and silica of mullite.