The morphologies and textures of the pyrolytic carbon matrix in 2D-C/C composites after graphitization were investigated by means of polarized light microscope (PLM) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The microstructure parameters of the pyrolytic carbon matrix before and after graphitization were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD) technology. It was found that the interplanar distance of (002) planes (d002) of pyrolytic carbon matrix decreases, and the microcrystalline stack height (LC) increases after graphitization. Graphitization treatment resulted in a coarsening of the surface texture and in the formation of circumferential cracks within the matrix. The lattice fringes of the pyrolytic carbon matrix are continuous and longer in each domain and the (002) peak spot is smaller and more intense after graphitization.