Titanium diboride nanoparticles reinforced copper matrix composite by combustion synthesis technology from titanium, boron and copper powders without other activated methods. Thermodynamics of the system was calculated theoretically. It was found that TiB2 was stable phase in the composite and TiCu interphase compound can convert into stable phase. The phases of the synthesized product were identified using X-ray diffraction and the results showed that only TiB2 and Cu phases, no other phases existed in the product. It is consistent with the calculated result of thermodynamics. SEM microstructural characterization showed that a homogenous distribution of the titanium diboride nanoparticles in the copper matrix.