The effects of rare earth oxides (Lu2O3 and La2O3) on the property, microstructure and oxidation behavior of hot-pressing sintered Si3N4 ceramics were investigated. The silicon nitride ceramics with Lu2O3 and La2O3 as addition have been fabricated by hot-pressed at 1800°C for 1h under a pressure of 25MPa. Oxidation test was carried out at 1400°C in air for 100 hours. Mechanical properties, SEM and XRD were measured before and after oxidation. The results showed that Si3N4 ceramics doped Lu2O3 had good microstructure and mechanical properties than those doped La2O3. Oxidation test showed a parabolic weight gain with oxidation time at 1400°C in air and the oxidation products of the ceramics were SiO2, Re2Si2O7 and Re2SiO5 confirmed by XRD and EDS. The rate-controlling step was the diffusion of ion. The samples doped Lu2O3 showed superior oxidation resistance to those doped La2O3.