An urgent is needed on the preservation of Chinese architectural heritages, since environmental and time impacts have been abating their structural resistance capability. It is of great importance in protecting and rehabilitating the ancient architectural culture of China to study the structural characteristics of ancient Chinese timber architectures. As a typical example of ancient timber architectures-Yingxian Wooden Pagoda in west of Shanxi Prince, the dynamic characteristics and damage mechanics of the tower are investigated experimentally and numerically by micro tremor measurements and means of finite-element-method (FEM). The micro tremor measurements are conducted on the tower (each floor) and the surrounding ground. From the micro tremor observation data, the predominant frequency of the surface ground and natural frequency, vibration mode and the damage distribution characteristics of the tower were evaluated. Based on the experimental studies, the tower is created by a delicate finite element model. And in order to simulate the mortise and tenon joint---bucket arches in the structure, which is a combination of a series of timber structures, a special beam-element group is developed. Numerical simulation of the seismic response of the tower shows that the second and third floors of the tower would be damaged more seriously than other floors for their severe stresses when acted by seismic loading. The present analysis of the tower shows the same phenomena. The results provide basis for repairing and reinforcing the ancient timber tower.