The β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP)/ poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) composites for biodegradable scaffolds in bone tissue engineering were synthesized by in situ polymerization with microwave energy. The degradation behavior of β-TCP/PLGA composite was investigated by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 4 weeks. The molecular weight of the β-TCP/PLGA composites decreased with soaking time until week 2, whereas the loss rate of molecular weight reduced after week 2. The incubation time was needed for the degradation of the β-TCP, indicating that the β-TCP should be detached from the PLGA matrix and then degraded into SBF solution. The studies of mass loss of the composites with the soaking time revealed that the degradation behavior of PLGA would be processed with the transformation from the polymer to the oligomer followed by the degradation. Morphological changes, whisker-like, due to transformation and degradation of polymer in the composites were observed after week 2. On the basis of the results, it found that the degradation behavior of β-TCP/PLGA composites was influenced by the β-TCP content in the composite and the degradation rate of the composite could be controlled by the initial molecular weight of PLGA in the composite.