The Bone Remodeling and Cellular Responses to Cranial Suture Distraction Osteogenesis in Growing Goats
The purpose of the present study was to observe the response and changes of cranial suture to the distraction forces in growing goats and to examine the expression patterns of TGF-β and BMP during suture distraction.Twenty growing goats were divided into three groups: control (n=4), experimental (n=12), and sham (n=4). A pure titanium distractor was placed in the coronal suture in both the sham and experimental groups. After healing, the distractor was activated for distraction of the coronal suture at a rate of 0.5 mm/day for 8 days in the experimental group. Three animals were killed respectively, at 0，2，4 and 8 weeks after completion of suture distraction. No force was applied in the sham group. X- Ray examination was taken and the coronal suture samples were harvested and processed for histological analysis and scanning electron microscopic analysis and immunohistochemistry of TGF-β and BMP. The coronal sutures of experimental group were separated successfully. Signs of intramembranous bone formation and remodeling were found in the distracted suture，and the sutural structure almost return to its normal state at 8 weeks after end of distraction. At 0 and 2 weeks after completion of suture distraction, the collagen fiber bundles were strengthened and aligned in the direction of the distracted forces. Strong expression of BMP and TGF-β were detected in the fibroblast-like cells and the active osteoblasts. At 4 weeks after suture distraction, signs of intramembranous ossification were found in the edge areas of the distracted suture, and the positive staining of BMP and TGF-β was still noted in the osteoblasts around the newly formed bone trabeculae. This study suggests that cranial suture expansion can be achieved in growing animal by distraction osteogenesis. Mechanical strain resulted from distractor can induce the adaptive remodeling in the cranial suture of growing goats. It also suggests BMP and TGF-β may play very important roles in the process of bone formation and remodeling during suture distraction osteogenesis.
Young-Ha Kim, Chong-Su Cho, Inn-Kyu Kang, Suk Young Kim and Oh Hyeong Kwon
Q. F. Zhang et al., "The Bone Remodeling and Cellular Responses to Cranial Suture Distraction Osteogenesis in Growing Goats", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 342-343, pp. 5-8, 2007