Preparation and Characterization of Bone Cements Incorporated with Montmorillonite
Bone cements incorporated with montmorillonite (MMT) were prepared in an attempt to improve their mechanical properties. The cements were characterized using particle size analysis, gel permeation chromatography, viscosity measurements, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and mechanical properties. The average particle size and molecular weight of the PMMA powders used were 47 μm and 100,000 g/mol, respectively. The incorporation of MMT led to an increase in viscosity of the bone cement but did not severely affect its setting temperature or the amount of residual monomer. Regardless of the MMT mixing methods used, in this case MMT being mixing in liquid and powder components, sodium MMT (SMMT) was not well dispersed in the bone cements, which was believed to be due to its hydrophilicity. Organophilic MMT (OMMT) was better dispersed in the liquid component than in the powder component. The tensile and compressive strengths of the bone cements with 0.5 wt% OMMT mixed in the liquid component were 35.9 and 119.6 MPa, respectively, which were considerably higher than those of the bone cements with 0.5 wt% OMMT mixed in the powder component (27.9 and 100.5 MPa, respectively).
Young-Ha Kim, Chong-Su Cho, Inn-Kyu Kang, Suk Young Kim and Oh Hyeong Kwon
S. Y. Lee and S. S. Kim, "Preparation and Characterization of Bone Cements Incorporated with Montmorillonite", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 342-343, pp. 753-756, 2007