Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Forming Limits in CNC Incremental Sheet Forming
Asymmetric incremental sheet forming (AISF) is a relatively new manufacturing process for the production of low volumes of sheet metal parts. Forming is accomplished by the CNC controlled movements of a simple ball-headed tool that follows a 3D trajectory to gradually shape the sheet metal blank. Due to the local plastic deformation under the tool, there is almost no draw-in from the flange region to avoid thinning in the forming zone. As a consequence, sheet thinning limits the amount of bearable deformation, and thus the range of possible applications. Much attention has been given to the maximum strains that can be attained in AISF. Several authors have found that the forming limits are considerably higher than those obtained using a Nakazima test and that the forming limit curve is approximately a straight line (mostly having a slope of -1) in the stretching region of the FLD. Based on these findings they conclude that the “conventional” forming limit curves cannot be used for AISF and propose dedicated tests to record forming limit diagrams for AISF. Up to now, there is no standardised test and no evaluation procedure for the determination of FLCs for AISF. In the present paper, we start with an analysis of the range of strain states and strain paths that are covered by the various tests that can be found in the literature. This is accomplished by means of on-line deformation measurements using a stereovision system. From these measurements, necking and fracture limits are derived. It is found that the fracture limits can be described consistently by a straight line with negative slope. The necking limits seem to be highly dependent on the test shapes and forming parameters. It is concluded that standardisation in both testing conditions and the evaluation procedures is necessary, and that a forming limit curve does not seem to be an appropriate tool to predict the feasibility of a given part design.
F. Micari, M. Geiger, J. Duflou, B. Shirvani, R. Clarke, R. Di Lorenzo and L. Fratini
M. Bambach et al., "Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Forming Limits in CNC Incremental Sheet Forming", Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 344, pp. 511-518, 2007