This paper deals with a definition of a relatively novel technique to improve the fatigue behavior of high strength aluminum alloys, namely, Fluidized Bed Peening (FBP). Fatigue samples made from AA 6082 T6 alloy were chosen according to ASTM regulation about rotating bending fatigue test and, subsequently, treated by varying FBP operational parameters and fatigue testing conditions. First, a full factorial experimental plan was performed to assess the trend of number of cycles to rupture of fatigue samples varying among several experimental levels the factors peening time and maximum amplitude of alternating stress applied to fatigue samples during rotating bending fatigue tests. Second, design of experiment (DOE) technique was used to analyze the influence of FBP operational parameters on fatigue life of AA 6082 T6 alloy. Finally, ruptures of FB treated samples and untreated samples were discussed in order to evaluate the influence of operational parameters on the effectiveness of FBP process and to understand the leading process mechanisms. At any rate, the fatigue behavior of processed components was found to be significantly improved, thereby proving the suitability of FBP process as alternative mechanical technique to enhance fatigue life of components made from high strength aluminum alloy.