Sheet Metal 2007

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Authors: A. Barcellona, L. Cannizzaro, D. Palmeri
Abstract: The increasing demand for the reduction of automobiles CO2 emissions for environmental preservation leads the automotive industries towards the mechanical components weight reduction. Sheet steels with multiphase microstructures exhibit favourable combinations of strength and ductility. The so called TRIP steels have a metastable microstructure that consists of a continuous ferrite matrix containing a dispersion of hard second phases martensite and bainite. These steels also contain retained austenite, at room temperature, that represents the source of the TRansformation Induced Plasticity effect. When the material is subjected to deformation step, the retained austenite transforms itself into martensite; the produced martensite delays the onset of necking resulting in a product with high total elongation, excellent formability and high crash energy absorption. In the present research the steel TRIP 800 zinc coated has been subjected to different thermo–mechanical treatments in order to evaluate the relation between microstructure of material and TRIP effects. Whit this aim the microstructural analysis has been performed and the evaluation of content of different phases has been made by means of the image analysis techniques. The relation among the strain level, the content of different phases, the thermal treatments and the work hardening properties of materials have been valued. Furthermore, it has been also highlighted the dependence of the bake hardening properties of material on the different thermo-mechanical treatments.
Authors: Marion Merklein, Jürgen Lecher, Vera Gödel, Stefania Bruschi, Andrea Ghiotti, Alberto Turetta
Abstract: Within the scope of this paper, the formability of the press hardenable steel 22MnB5 will be investigated with regard to its anisotropic properties at elevated temperatures under the processing conditions of hot stamping. Two different experimental setups have been realized, one at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg using conductive heating, and the other one at the University of Padova using inductive heating. Both of these equipments enable the characterization of the material anisotropy behavior by performing uniaxial, hot tensile tests in the range of hot stamping temperatures.
Authors: M. Barletta, F. Lambiase, Vincenzo Tagliaferri
Abstract: This paper deals with a definition of a relatively novel technique to improve the fatigue behavior of high strength aluminum alloys, namely, Fluidized Bed Peening (FBP). Fatigue samples made from AA 6082 T6 alloy were chosen according to ASTM regulation about rotating bending fatigue test and, subsequently, treated by varying FBP operational parameters and fatigue testing conditions. First, a full factorial experimental plan was performed to assess the trend of number of cycles to rupture of fatigue samples varying among several experimental levels the factors peening time and maximum amplitude of alternating stress applied to fatigue samples during rotating bending fatigue tests. Second, design of experiment (DOE) technique was used to analyze the influence of FBP operational parameters on fatigue life of AA 6082 T6 alloy. Finally, ruptures of FB treated samples and untreated samples were discussed in order to evaluate the influence of operational parameters on the effectiveness of FBP process and to understand the leading process mechanisms. At any rate, the fatigue behavior of processed components was found to be significantly improved, thereby proving the suitability of FBP process as alternative mechanical technique to enhance fatigue life of components made from high strength aluminum alloy.
Authors: Andrea Ghiotti, Stefania Bruschi, Paolo F. Bariani
Abstract: The constant demand of increasing performances and safety in vehicle industry has led significant innovations in the materials used in sheet metal forming processes. In particular, multiphase steels and lightweight alloys have known higher and higher importance, thanks to the development of new stamping processes at elevated temperatures, which guarantee, at the same time, better formability, lower springback and more accurate micro-structural control in the formed sheets. With respect to these aspects, the correct design and optimization of the new processes cannot prescind of the mechanical characterization of materials in biaxial stress conditions, especially when it strongly varies according to the stress and temperature. In this paper, a novel experimental set-up is presented for determining the in-plane yield locus of sheet metals at elevated temperatures. A cruciform specimen, whose geometry was optimized by numerical simulation, is used for the study of the yield locus in the range of biaxial tensile stresses. The test machine concept is based on punch-wedge mechanism, which uses the vertical movement of the press for the deformation of the specimen along two perpendicular axes. In the first part of the paper, the optimization of the cruciform specimen by thermo-mechanical FE analyses is outlined. Details on the experimental set-up are then given with the description of the apparatus, the measurement of plastic strains and the heating system for tests at elevated temperatures.
Authors: Massimo Tolazzi, Marion Merklein
Abstract: This paper presents a method for the experimental determination of forming limit diagrams under non linear strain paths. The method consists in pre-forming the sheets under two different strain conditions: uniaxial and biaxial, and then stretching the samples, cut out of the preformed sheets, using a Nakajima testing setup. The optical deformation measurement system used for the process analysis (ARAMIS, Company GOM) allows to record and to analyze the strain distribution very precisely with respect to both time and space. As a reference also the FLDs of the investigated grades (the deep drawing steel DC04, the dual phase steel DP450 and the aluminum alloy AA5754) in as-received conditions were determined. The results show as expected an influence of the pre-forming conditions on the forming limit of the materials, with an increased formability in the case of biaxial stretching after uniaxial pre-forming and a reduced formability for uniaxial load after biaxial stretching if compared to the case of linear strain paths. These effects can be observed for all the investigated materials and can be also described in terms of a shifting of the FLD, which is related to the art and magnitude of the pre-deformation.
Authors: Donato Sorgente, G. Palumbo, Luigi Tricarico
Abstract: In this work a method, based on bulge tests performed on a blow forming equipment, for evaluating the superplastic material characteristics is proposed. The pressure imposed on the sheet and the height of the dome of the specimen during the test are used as characterizing parameters. Different pressure levels are applied subsequently in the same test and the strain rate sensitivity index is calculated starting with analytical considerations and then with an inverse approach based on a simple finite element numerical model of the test. The change of the slope in the specimen dome height curve, due to the change of the pressure, is correlated to the strain rate in the sheet. The method has been verified applying other load profiles on the sheet and good agreement has been found between experiments and numerical results obtained by the inverse analysis.
Authors: Fabrizio Quadrini, Loredana Santo, Erica Anna Squeo
Abstract: An easy and innovative technique for metal sheet characterization is described. A double indentation is performed on sheets by means of two co-axial small diameter flat indenters made of WC. A very small indentation is left on the sheet, so as to consider this technique a non destructive one, particularly suitable for on-line application. The proposed method was tested on sheets of aluminum alloy (6082 T6) with several thicknesses (nominally 0.6, 0.8, 1 and 1.5 mm). Double indentations were performed changing indenter diameter (1 and 2 mm) and testing rate (from 0.05 to 1 mm/min). In order to make a comparison with indentation tests, flat specimens were cut from the same sheets and standard tensile tests were performed. A very good correlation was found between indentation and tensile test results, showing the effectiveness of the proposed method. A suitable data normalization is necessary to correctly compare indentation and tensile data. The best results were obtained using the smaller diameter indenter. The testing rate seems to be not relevant in the experimented range, suggesting that a fast procedure can be defined on purpose for on-line application.
Authors: Paulo Flores, Félix Bonnet, Anne Marie Habraken
Abstract: This article shows the influence of a plane strain test specimen geometry on the measurable strain field and the influence of free edge effects over the stress computation. The experimental strain field distribution is measured over the whole deformable zone of a plane strain test specimen by an optical strain gauge. The chosen material is the DC06 IF steel of 0.8 mm thickness. The stress field is computed for several geometries at different strain levels by a Finite Element (FE) commercial code (Samcef ®). The results show that the stress field is sensitive to the specimen’s geometry and also to the tested material (strain field behavior is independent of material) and, based on results, an optimal specimen geometry is proposed in order to minimized the stress computation error.
Authors: Gianluca Buffa, Livan Fratini, Marion Merklein, Detlev Staud
Abstract: Tight competition characterizing automotive industries in the last decades has determined a strong research effort aimed to improve utilized processes and materials in sheet stamping. As far as the latter are regarded light weight alloys, high strength steels and tailored blanks have been increasingly utilized with the aim to reduce parts weight and fuel consumptions. In the paper the mechanical properties and formability of tailored welded blanks made of a precipitation hardenable aluminum alloy but with different sheet thicknesses, have been investigated: both laser welding and friction stir welding have been developed to obtain the tailored blanks. For both welding operations a wide range of the thickness ratios has been considered. The formability of the obtained blanks has been characterized through tensile tests and cup deep drawing tests, in order to show the formability in dependency of the stress condition; what is more mechanical and metallurgical investigations have been made on the welded joints.

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