In the present study, a new approach is conducted to evaluate dislocation structure induced by cyclic plasticity. First, cyclic plastic loading tests are carried out up to 100 cycles with three different small strain amplitudes on SUS316L stainless steel at room temperature. The test result presents the dependence of the strain amplitude on cyclic hardening and softening behaviors. Specifically, it is found that the cyclic loading test with strain amplitude of 0.25% shows both cyclic hardening and cyclic softening, while the cyclic loading tests with strain amplitudes of 0.75% and 1.0% show no cyclic softening. Secondly, the dislocation structures of the specimens after cyclic loading are observed by using a transmission electron microscope (TEM), and this observation reveals that the dislocation structure after cyclic loading test depends on the strain amplitude. Finally, a quantitative evaluation method of the dislocation structure is also proposed. The TEM images are converted into binary images and the resolution dependence of the generated binary image is used to visualize the characteristics of the dislocation structure. The relationship between strain amplitudes of cyclic plasticity and dislocation structure organization is clarified by the evaluation method. Finally, the heterogeneity of the dislocation structure is discussed.