Multi-Phased Array for Damage Localisation
A method for damage localisation has been developed, which is based on the phased array idea. Four arrays of transducers, instead of only one, are used to perform a beam-forming procedure. Each array consists of nine transducers placed along a line, which are able to excite and register elastic waves. The arrays are placed in such a way that the angular difference between them is 45º and the rotation point is the middle transducer, which is common for all the arrays. The idea has been tested on a square aluminium plate modelled by the Spectral Finite Element Method. Two types of damage were considered, namely distributed damage, which was modelled as stiffness reduction, and cracks, modelled as separation of nodes in selected finite elements. The plate is excited by a wave packet (5-cycle sine modulated by the Hanning window). The whole array system is placed in the middle of the plate. Each phase array in the system acts independently and produces maps of a scanned field based on the beam-forming procedure. These maps are made of signals that represent the difference between the damaged plate signals and those from the intact plate. An algorithm was developed to join all four maps. This procedure eliminates the necessity to analyse each map individually and also gives the possibility to extract common features only. It allows to remove ambiguity and helps to localise damage more precisely than in the case of a single map. The problem for damage localisation was investigated and exemplary maps confirming the effectiveness of the system proposed were obtained. The investigation is based exclusively on numerical data.
L. Garibaldi, C. Surace, K. Holford and W.M. Ostachowicz
P. Malinowski et al., "Multi-Phased Array for Damage Localisation", Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 347, pp. 77-82, 2007