Combustion synthesis of titanium diboride(TiB2) from titanium(Ti) and boron(B) powders was studied by theoretical calculation and experimental analysis. In high temperature range or in low temperature range, the calculated activation energies are 140KJ/mol or 355KJ/mol respectively, which is described by a change from dissolution-precipitation controlled process to diffusion-controlled process. With the increase of particle size of the raw materials, combustion temperature and propagating rate will both reduce. The propagating rate decreases with the addition of diluents. Further increase of diluents may result in a stop of the combustion wave halfway or even a failure of ignition.