The Al2O3/LiTaO3 (ALT) composite ceramics were fabricated by hot pressing method and polarization treated at different temperatures along height and width directions. Effects of polarization treatment on mechanical properties of the ALT composite ceramic were investigated. Flexural strength decreased with the increase of polarization temperature. Meanwhile, the flexural strength of samples polarized in height direction is higher than that polarized in width direction. The composite ceramic fractures intragranularly, and many rupture steps in polarization direction were observed on fractographs of the composite ceramics. Domain switching in LiTaO3 particles increased the resistance of crack propagation and improved the mechanical properties of the polarized ALT composite ceramics.