Growth Pattern Study of Closed Surface Flaw under Compression
Under extra compressive stress, some phenomena of rock spallings and fractures often exist on rock mass located in sidewalls of underground house and tunnels. It is the reason that the crack growth and coalescence initiation from original flaws (or faults) in rock mass. In the previous studies, many researchers took a flaw as a through flaw (2-dimentional model), but the flaws are not always through the whole rock mass in fact, most of them are only near the surface of rock mass, These are so named as surface flaws. They belong to three dimensional (2-D) flaws. Now, the reports on initiation and growth of 3-D surface flaw are few. So, for the investigation on growth patterns of 3-D surface flaw, a series of samples containing a surface flaw were carried out using frozen casting resin material at about -30°C temperatures. The surface flaw was made of a polyester film was used to model a single closed flaw on rock mass. The experimental results show that the wrapping wing crack (Mode I) initiated at the ends (or tips) of surface flaw first, and then formed a kinking zone (mixed crack zone) at a certain place at the middle of surface flaw region. Some petal cracks (Mode III) and shell-shaped cracks (Mode III) would grow at the middle place of flaw. A big fin crack (Mixed Mode) also emerged in middle of flaw and grown along loading direction. Finally, a team of large cracking curved faces deformed inside the resin specimen; the whole specimen would be splitted off by the initiation and growth of the cracks. The reasons lead to the fracture patterns of 3-D closed surface flaw were provided with brittle fracture mechanics theory in the article, preliminarily.
Yu Zhou, Shan-Tung Tu and Xishan Xie
Y.S.H. Guo et al., "Growth Pattern Study of Closed Surface Flaw under Compression", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 353-358, pp. 158-161, 2007