The mechanical properties of bone have been found varying at different structural levels. The different mechanical properties might indicate some important information, such as the ultrastructure of various bone tissue. Descriptions of the structural features of bone are intensive in current studies. However, the mechanical properties of bone, in particular those at the micro-and nanostructural level (material level) remain poorly understood. To probe the mechanical properties at the microstuctural level, the nanoindentation technique is applied. Nanoindentation as a promising technique is widely used in the materials science community for probing the mechanical properties of thin films, small volumes, and small microstructural features. Nanoindentation has been shown to be an effective method to probe the mechanical properties of microstructures at the micron scale.