Quantitative Estimation of the Fastening Condition of a Bolt with Using Piezoceramic (PZT) Sensors
We present a study on the development of a practical and quantitative technique for the assessment of the structural health condition with using piezoceramic (PZT) sensors. The electroimpedance- based technique with the PZT patches is very sensitive for evaluation of the incipient and small damage in a high frequency range, and however the commonly traditional modal analysis method is effective only for considerably larger damages in low frequency range. The paper presents the performance of the performance of the electro-impedance-based technique in detecting and characterizing real-time damage on the specimen that is an aluminum plate fastened with bolts and nuts by different torques. By using the special arrangement of the PZT sensors, the required longitudinal wave is generated through the specimen. A large number of experiments are conducted and the different conditions of the specimen, i.e. the location of loosening bolts and the loosening extent of bolts are simulated, respectively. Since fixing and loosening the loosened bolt is controlled by a torque wrench, we can control exactly the experiment of the different torques. Compared with the simulated healthy condition, we can find whether or not there is a damage in the specimen with using an impedance analyzer with the PZT sensors. Several indices are discussed and used for assessing the different simulated damages. As for the location of bolt loosening, the RMSD is found to be the most appropriate index for numerical assessment and as well the RMSD shows strongly linear relationship for assessing the extent of the bolt loosening. The possibility of repeatability of the pristine condition signatures is also presented and the appropriate frequency range and interval are uniquely selected through large numbers of experiments. The analytical results strongly show the sensibility and reliability of the electro-impedance based technique.
Yu Zhou, Shan-Tung Tu and Xishan Xie
G. P. Wang et al., "Quantitative Estimation of the Fastening Condition of a Bolt with Using Piezoceramic (PZT) Sensors", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 353-358, pp. 2436-2440, 2007