When a tunnel or an underground structure is excavated in rock mass, rock disturbed or damaged zone (EDZ) is formed around the excavation due to the stress concentration resulting from stress redistribution. Recent studies on the rock EDZ revealed it’s important to structural stability around underground opening. In this study, the fracture and damage mechanisms of rock induced by the accumulation of microcracks were investigated by AE tests. The results of the experiments showed that tensile failure was the major microscopic failure mechanism of rock in excavation damaged and disturbed zone. The expression of the damage magnitudes in each AE source leads to accurate prediction of macroscopic failure mechanisms. In addition, the orientation of the macroscopic failure plane could be estimated by the orientational distribution of microcracks.