This paper reports on the research into multiphase bone substitutes carried out by laboratories from the ‘Pays de la Loire’ region in France. This collaborative research was funded by both the French Government and the Regional Council in the period 2000-2007. Calcium phosphate bioceramics, polymers and combinations have been developed as bone substitutes for various maxillofacial and orthopaedic applications. These bone substitutes should support and regenerate bone tissue and resorb after implantation. In the bone tissue engineering area, they have been combined with autologous bone marrow cells or bioactive factors. The bone substitutes were tested in various animal models mimicking clinical situations or under pathological conditions (osteoporosis). In order to complete our research, the multiphase materials were also evaluated in clinical trials.